Sayyid Dynasty was the fourth dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate after the Mamluk, Khilji, and Tughlaq dynasty. But how did the Sayyid Dynasty come into power? Who was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty? How many Sayyid Dynasty rulers ruled? How did the dynasty come to an end? Important facts and information about the history of the Sayyid Dynasty and its rulers are listed here.
In 1398 Timur set his eyes on India and sacked Delhi. Timur appointed Khizr Khan as the deputy of Multan. In 1414 Khizr Khan marched over to Delhi and captured it and this was the beginning of the Sayyid Dynasty. Khizr Khan was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty but he never took the title of the sultan.
Khizr Khan was ruling to represent Timur’s authority. He didn’t take the title of sultan but after taking over the throne he appointed Malik-us-Sharq Tuhfa as his wazir and gave him the title of Taj-ul-Mulk. Khizr Khan took control of parts of Surat, Dimapur and Punjab with the help of Malik-us-Sharq but he lost control of Bengal, Deccan, Gujarat, Jaunpur, Khandesh and Malwa. Khizr Khan died in 1421. His son Mubarak Shah succeeded him. The reign of Khizr Khan marked its place in history for utter chaos and disorder.
Mubarak Shah was the second ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty. He was the son of Khizr Khan. Mubarak Shah had the vision to expand the empire of the Sayyid Dynasty but he had to face a lot of opposition and rebellions. Mubarak Shah used to get Khutba read in his name and had issued his coins. The rebellion against his rule was subdued by him at Bhatinda and Daob. Mubarak Shah was the first ruler who appointed Hindu nobles in the court of Delhi. He constructed a city on the banks of the river Jamuna and named it Mubarakbad. He did not make any attempts to recover the lost territories. Mubarak Shah was murdered in 1434. His nephew Muhammad Shah succeeded him. A writer Yahya Sirhindi mentioned in his Tarikh-i-Mubarak shahi that Sayyid Dynasty rulers were descendants of Prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad Shah was the third ruler of the Sayyid dynasty. Muhammad Shah was the nephew of Mubarak Shah. Muhammad Shah was considered a very weak ruler. With the help of Sarwar ul Mulk, Muhammad Shah ascended the throne. Sarwar ul Mulk’s decisions used to dominate Muhammad Shah’s decisions. With the help of vizier Kamal ul Mulk, his faithful minister, Muhammad Shah had tried to free him from the domination of Sarwar ul Mulk. Later with the help of the governor of Lahore Bahlul Lodi, he defeated the ruler of Malwa. For helping him defeat the ruler of Malwa he gave the title Khan-i-Khana to Bahlul Lodi. His reign saw many rebellions and conspiracies. Muhammad Shah died in the year 1445. Alauddin Shah succeeded him.
Alauddin Alam Shah was the fourth and last ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty. Alauddin Shah as a ruler wasn’t strong enough. Most of the kingdoms declared their freedom under his rule. In 1448 he left the charge and went to Badaun. Three years later Bahlul Lodi ascended the throne of Delhi starting the Lodi Dynasty. In 1478 Alam Shah died in Badaun. This was the end of the Sayyid Dynasty.
Sayyid Dynasty ended with Alauddin Alam Shah. The dynasty ended when there was continuous opposition and rebellion with a weak ruler. With time the rule of the Sayyid Dynasty became unstable and grew weak enough for someone else to overthrow it and take over the throne.
When Alauddin Shah voluntarily left the charge and went to Badaun, three years later Bahlul Lodi ascended the throne of Delhi starting the Lodi Dynasty. Thus the Lodi Dynasty replaced the Sayyid Dynasty. Lodi Dynasty was the fifth and last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. That was later replaced by the Mughals starting the Mughal rule in India.
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