Sayyid Dynasty (1)

Delhi Sultanate

Sayyid Dynasty: Rise and Fall

Introduction

Sayyid Dynasty was the fourth dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate after the Mamluk, Khilji, and Tughlaq dynasty. But how did the Sayyid Dynasty come into power? Who was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty? How many Sayyid Dynasty rulers ruled? How did the dynasty come to an end? Important facts and information about the history of the Sayyid Dynasty and its rulers are listed here.

Table of Contents

Beginning of Sayyid Dynasty

In 1398 Timur set his eyes on India and sacked Delhi. Timur appointed Khizr Khan as the deputy of Multan. In 1414 Khizr Khan marched over to Delhi and captured it and this was the beginning of the Sayyid Dynasty. Khizr Khan was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty but he never took the title of the sultan.

Rulers of the Sayyid Dynasty

1. Khizr Khan (1414-1421 AD)

Khizr Khan was ruling to represent Timur’s authority. He didn’t take the title of sultan but after taking over the throne he appointed Malik-us-Sharq Tuhfa as his wazir and gave him the title of Taj-ul-Mulk. Khizr Khan took control of parts of Surat, Dimapur and Punjab with the help of Malik-us-Sharq but he lost control of Bengal, Deccan, Gujarat, Jaunpur, Khandesh and Malwa. Khizr Khan died in 1421. His son Mubarak Shah succeeded him. The reign of Khizr Khan marked its place in history for utter chaos and disorder.

2. Mubarak Shah (1421-1434 AD)

Mubarak Shah was the second ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty. He was the son of Khizr Khan. Mubarak Shah had the vision to expand the empire of the Sayyid Dynasty but he had to face a lot of opposition and rebellions. Mubarak Shah used to get Khutba read in his name and had issued his coins. The rebellion against his rule was subdued by him at Bhatinda and Daob. Mubarak Shah was the first ruler who appointed Hindu nobles in the court of Delhi. He constructed a city on the banks of the river Jamuna and named it Mubarakbad. He did not make any attempts to recover the lost territories. Mubarak Shah was murdered in 1434. His nephew Muhammad Shah succeeded him. A writer Yahya Sirhindi mentioned in his Tarikh-i-Mubarak shahi that Sayyid Dynasty rulers were descendants of Prophet Muhammad.

3. Muhammad Shah (1434-1445 AD)

Muhammad Shah was the third ruler of the Sayyid dynasty. Muhammad Shah was the nephew of Mubarak Shah. Muhammad Shah was considered a very weak ruler. With the help of Sarwar ul Mulk, Muhammad Shah ascended the throne. Sarwar ul Mulk’s decisions used to dominate Muhammad Shah’s decisions. With the help of vizier Kamal ul Mulk, his faithful minister, Muhammad Shah had tried to free him from the domination of Sarwar ul Mulk. Later with the help of the governor of Lahore Bahlul Lodi, he defeated the ruler of Malwa. For helping him defeat the ruler of Malwa he gave the title Khan-i-Khana to Bahlul Lodi. His reign saw many rebellions and conspiracies. Muhammad Shah died in the year 1445. Alauddin Shah succeeded him.

4. Alauddin Alam Shah (1445-1451 AD)

Alauddin Alam Shah was the fourth and last ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty. Alauddin Shah as a ruler wasn’t strong enough. Most of the kingdoms declared their freedom under his rule. In 1448 he left the charge and went to Badaun. Three years later Bahlul Lodi ascended the throne of Delhi starting the Lodi Dynasty. In 1478 Alam Shah died in Badaun. This was the end of the Sayyid Dynasty.

End of Sayyid Dynasty

Sayyid Dynasty ended with Alauddin Alam Shah. The dynasty ended when there was continuous opposition and rebellion with a weak ruler. With time the rule of the Sayyid Dynasty became unstable and grew weak enough for someone else to overthrow it and take over the throne.

Dynasty that replaced Sayyid Dynasty

When Alauddin Shah voluntarily left the charge and went to Badaun, three years later Bahlul Lodi ascended the throne of Delhi starting the Lodi Dynasty. Thus the Lodi Dynasty replaced the Sayyid Dynasty. Lodi Dynasty was the fifth and last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. That was later replaced by the Mughals starting the Mughal rule in India.

Questions related to the Sayyid Dynasty

  1. Who was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty?
    Khizr Khan was the founder of the Sayyid Dynasty. He didn’t take the title of sultan but kept working to represent Timur’s authority.
  2. What was the ruling period of the Sayyid Dynasty?
    Sayyid Dynasty was in power for 37 years from 1414 to 1451 AD.
  3. Who wrote Takhrikh-i-Mubarak Shahi?
    Yahya bin Ahmad Sirhindi wrote Takhrikh-i-Mubarak Shahi. Yahya bin Ahmad Sirhindi was a 15th-century Indian Chronicler. He wrote Takhrikh-i-Mubarak Shahi during the reign of Mubarak Shah.
  4. Sayyid Dynasty rulers were called descendants of whom?
    Sayyid Dynasty rulers were called the descendants of the Prophet Mohammad.
  5. Who was the last ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty?
    Alauddin Alam Shah was the last ruler of the Sayyid Dynasty. Sayyid Dynasty ended with him and was replaced by the Lodi Dynasty.
  6. Name the Delhi Sultanate ruler who used to get Khutba read in his name and had issued coins of his own?
    Mubarak Shah used to have Khutba read in his name and had issued coins of his own.
  7. Taj-ul-Mulk was the minister of which sultan?
    Khizr Khan had appointed Malik-us-Sharq Tuhfa as his wazir and gave him the title of Taj-ul-Mulk.
  8. What was the name of Khizr Khan’s son?
    Mubarak Shah was Khizr Khan’s son who succeeded the throne after his death.
  9. Who became the ruler after Timur’s invasion?
    Timur appointed Khizr Khan as the deputy of Multan. In 1414 Khizr Khan marched over to Delhi and captured it and this was the beginning of the Sayyid Dynasty.
  10. With whose help Muhammad Shah defeated ruler of Malwa?
    With the help of the governor of Lahore Bahlul Lodi Muhammad Shah defeated the ruler of Malwa.
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Kinshu Patel

Kinshu Patel

Kinshu is a content writer at Exam Lounge. She has experience as an educational content writer for the past 3 years. Her main field of interest is General awareness including History, Geography and Current Affairs

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